If you are involved with IT strategy or software procurement and are keen to get the best value for money, then you should ensure you consider using open source software. This is certainly the approach recommended by the UK Government. Their policy, covering publicly funded bodies such as the NHS and the education sector, states that they will consider OSS solutions alongside proprietary ones in IT procurements. Contracts will be awarded on a value for money basis. However, building such considerations into university and college policies takes time. Moreover, it may affect more than just the institution’s IT strategy. Open source software needs to be considered in terms of intellectual property rights policies, employment contracts, and more.
If consideration of open source software is good policy, then the first step is to gain some familiarity with the world of open source and why it might be important for your university or college.
Open source software can seem a bit baffling at first. Essentially, it is software that people are not only prepared to give away for free, but also to allow you to see the underlying code and edit it as you see fit. This might not seem like a very sensible business strategy. It may even lead you to wonder whether open source software is any good. If it were, why would people give it away?
Once you begin to understand the motivating factors behind open source software development, and see the rationale that persuades even large commercial companies such as IBM and Oracle to support open source, you will most likely feel reassured. There are doubtless a few questions you would like answered before giving open source software more serious consideration however.
The following resources address questions such as: what is open source software all about? Who are the people who inhabit the world of open source? Why are so many people making such a noise about it? These documents are designed to familiarize you with the fundamental concepts.
- What is open source software?
- Benefits of Open Source Code
- Standards and Open Source
- Is open source software insecure? An introduction to the issues
- Top Tips For Selecting Open Source Software
- Sustainable open source
- Avoiding abandon-ware: getting to grips with the open development method
- Meritocrats, cluebats and the open development method: an interview with Justin Erenkrantz
- Richard Stallman on the road less travelled
- Microsoft: an end to open hostilities?
- Community source vs open source
- The community source development model
- Open Source Initiative [http://www.opensource.org/]
- OFSET - Organization for Free Software in Education and Teaching [http://www.ofset.org/]
- SchoolForge-UK [http://www.schoolforge.org.uk/]
- Chris DiBona, Danese Cooper, and Mark Stone (eds.), Open Sources 2.0: the continuing evolution, O’Reilly (2005). [http://www.archive.org/details/opensources2.000diborich]
There are legal issues that are particularly pertinent to open source software, most notably intellectual property rights (IPR). You should not be put off by such issues, but you should understand them.
Open source software is defined by its licence. To count as genuine open source software, a program must be released under a licence certified by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). The choice of licence is down to the copyright holder, but when many different people are working on something together, ownership of copyright can be an issue in itself. If your employees are to be involved in open source software development then you will also need to be aware of possible restrictions on combining licences or releasing modified programs. The potential for software innovations to be patented is also a growing concern, as this introduces another aspect of IPR beyond simple copyright.
Engaging with open source software can have implications for institutional IPR policies, employment policies, contracts, and knowledge transfer options. The following documents cover open source licence types and areas in which intellectual property issues may arise.
- Free and open source software business and sustainability models
- Free & Open Source Software Licensing
- Free and open source software and your patents
- Contributor Licence Agreements
- Creative Commons and Open Content
- Software Patents
- An Introduction to Ownership and Licensing Issues
- Dual Licensing as a business model
- What is version control? Why is it important for due diligence?
- Intellectual Property [http://www.intellectual-property.gov.uk/]
- IPR Helpdesk [http://www.ipr-helpdesk.org/]
Policy and strategy
Incorporating new concepts and models within your IT strategy is no easy task. Institutional policy is situated within policy frameworks from government and other funding bodies. Nevertheless, within these constraints it is generally possible to find room for open source, especially if it can be related to some form of best practice.
Institutions and individuals are increasingly thinking about how open source software can be formally assessed as part of the procurement process, and there are publications that can help you understand and compare the strengths and weaknesses of open source software against commercial proprietary packages.
The resources listed here deal with: institutional policies; including open source software in IT strategy; the state of play of software policy and usuage in UK HE and FE; and assessing the appropriateness of open source software packages in practical situations.
- Advice for project bids
- Planning for sustainability
- Open source and open innovation
- Open innovation in software
- Open source and research infrastructure
- Community lessons for research infrastructure
- Sustainability lessons for research infrastructure
- Procuring Free & Open Source Software
- The business of open source
- Decision factors for open source software procurement
- Reuse Readiness Rating
- Software Sustainability Maturity Model
- Open Source Options: Making use of the Cabinet Office guidance on Open Source Software
- JISC Policy Policy on Open Source Software for JISC Projects and Services
- UK government policy Open Source Software: Use within UK Government
Stay in the loop
To keep up to date with what is happening in the open source world as it relates to the strategic IT decision-making in the academic sector you may wish to
- join our announcement list
- attend an OSS Watch event
- read a conference report
- track our RSS news feeds
- or follow our team blog
OSS Watch also provides institution specific consultation workshops for universities and colleges seeking assistance in thinking through their engagement with free and open source software.